Marcel Fiorini, Algerian/French (1922 - 2008)
Marcel Fiorini, born February 23, 1922 in Guelma (Algeria) and died January 16, 2008 in Bois-le-Roi, is a non-figurative painter and a French engraver of the new School of Paris recognized particularly for new etching processes in intaglio on wood, linoleum or plaster that has developed and used since the 1950s.
Marcel Fiorini began in 1938 to paint and to experiment using etching acids and products of the pharmacy from his father for making varnish depending on the recipe of an old drug code. After graduating high school in Bone (Annaba) where it binds with Marcel Bouqueton he attended from 1940 to 1942 the School of Fine Arts of Algiers. He met Louis and Maria Manton Nallard with whom he arrived in France in 1947.
Installed first in the Paris region and Paris, Fiorini shared the friendship of Roger and Roger Chastel Bissière for whom he directed from 1952 interpretation of the engravings, as well as Jean Bertholle, Mark Tobey, Maria Elena Vieira da Silva, Jacques Villon. In 1953 he illustrated The Rose of Verona, a poem by Jean Lescure, the text is included in Thirteen poems. According to the gouaches Bissière in 1954 he engraved images and text from the Song to the sun of St. Francis of Assisi which it takes itself all events. For Jacques Villon he engraved illustrations of Laus Veneris Swinburne in 1956, baby teeth, wolf teeth of Henri Pichette in 1959, an adjournment of Andrd du Bouchet in 1960.
Participating in the Salon of New Realities in 1948, the Salon de Mai and exhibitions of contemporary printmaking Young, Fiorini receives for his painting in 1952 the price Fénéon Felix, in 1954 the price of the Dome in 1955 the price of the Biennial Menton and his engravings Prize at the Biennale of Sao Paulo. He exhibits regularly at Galerie Jeanne Bucher in 1953 to 1970 and in Switzerland and Germany, and participated in numerous group exhibitions in Europe, the United States, Japan and Latin America. The engravings (Nesto Jacometti) publishes since 1956 the majority of his prints.
Fiorini was later made decorative porcelain objects for the Manufacture nationale de Sèvres and a series of twelve plates illustrating the chimney for signs of the Zodiac Cousances Foundries and Forges-les-taught printmaking at the School National Superieure des Arts Decoratifs in Paris, rue d'Ulm.
The importance of Marcel Fiorini in the developments of the engraving in the second half of the twentieth century is that he invented new processes, wood, linoleum or plaster intaglio, and richness of expression they allow.
The two traditional forms of printmaking 
The oldest way to burn, used in the early days of "incunabula" but practiced since ancient times for decorative fabrics, achieving the seals or card games, is the "embossing" or "size savings "usually practiced on wood (" woodcut "), which paved the way for the engraving of the typeface. After inking the "reserves", that is to say, the hollow notched on the plate to reveal the white drawing paper while the solids, remained in relief, saved and inked surfaces to defer the dark. The process is simple but the possibilities of varying the values remain almost nonexistent. The "intaglio" printing is the way that is clean contrary to the process of "intaglio", inherited from the Italian goldsmiths Quatrocento. In this technique the "size", that is to say, the hollow notched on the metal plate with a burin, drypoint to or by the processes of etching and aquatint (by acid-etching ), retain, after inking the pad and wipe the muslin, ink the wet paper comes to drink, "rolled" under the strong pressure of a roller press. In the tradition as in the revival of printmaking emerged from the 1930s is the metal used in intaglio dominates, allowing the subtleties in the animation of the line and range of values, work in relief of wood being marginalized.
Fiorini, after using aquatint, fast enough in color, and have started to work as a printer, the print is for him a moment as important as burning, realized in 1952 the synthesis of new use wood (plywood boards into thin pear, oak, walnut and okoume) and the printing technique of intaglio. Unlike the embossing are values and not the whites that are carved into the wood, absorbing and returning the paper more or less ink as it is more or less painted or polished. In the new process that develops, combinations of solids and troughs of varying depths allow a wide variety of transparencies and opacities. It is also possible for the writer to take advantage in his work plastically mottling fibers and textures of the material. "The superiority of the wood is true even for burning color" analysis Fiorini in 1953: "It is a perfect medium of color. Not only are avoided chemical reactions caused by any metal not steel, but wood generally provides a much purer tone than metal. "(Quoted by Roger Van Gindertael, Fiorini, 1965). Fiorini at that time not only its direct ink and plates of different colors but also adapts his technique to linoleum (linocut), which, by its flexibility, increases the potential for incision and expression. While in his aquatints and woodcuts, generally vertical, the plots suggest cleaned very allusive still life and human figures, the horizontal space of his linocuts rather opens a wide range of non-figurative landscapes.
From 1959 Fiorini extends its processes to the achievement of a book entirely engraved, a herbarium of the dunes, which represents a synthesis of his previous innovations and is the cause of his subsequent research. His original intention was to "bind all wood and lino intaglio printed in intaglio, and a poetic text incorporated into the burning, forming an uninterrupted, an arabesque from the beginning to the end of the book," which involves "printing on both sides of the sheet to prevent the rupture of a blank page at the back of the engraving." Fiorini describes the project to his friend the poet Jean Lescure "with a passion and immediately said the theme and place: theme, plants, sea and land, the algae on the vine through the species both separate and unite, "Fiorini wrote in the leaflet accompanying the presentation of the book. During two summers on the Island of Re formed at the same time "the words and images." Fiorini in 1962 and 20 major plates, that is to say 40 pages that incorporate the lines of the poem by Jean Lescure in their plastic composition which fit both the free forms reminiscent of the plant or materials and components non-figurative landscape of the shores. In the rest of his engravings Fiorini introduced over a time dimension, the book develops a general progression from dark to light of dawn. It then finds ways to make each piece of paper, avoiding the embossing, the four passages in the press for printing double-sided images (on linoleum floor) and text (on copper plates, includes also a part of burning). The book, unique in the history of printmaking, is exposed by the Galerie Jeanne Bucher in 1964 and the poem will be included in the collection Draille in 1968. Alongside his long stays of execution Fiorini to the Isle of Ré are behind a series of major boards (including kelp, seaweed, Les Salines, Le Marais, Pearl, The Beach, The Dune to vines) around the same themes "Atlantic."
Beyond the wood and linoleum uses Fiorini in 1963 the plaster, making it less broken by the addition of adhesives plastics (vinyl, polyester) which give a certain elasticity and allow all possible handlings. "Wealth of use of such material, which may be masonry, to slip, to mold or s'estamper when still fresh, and digging, scratching, carving, when hard, n is only limited by the requirements of intaglio printing, "says he. To this rich plaster, all liable to formal determinations, plus an unprecedented immediacy of expression that is removed at any time of execution or any intermediary. It is mainly in this process ("gypsographie intaglio") that will perform Fiorini his prints later. In 1964 he resumed his intention to introduce the term in his album The Seasons he realized from a single plank engraved on linoleum with superstructures of plaster, printed eight times differently, recreating the diversity of colors for each time year one morning light and another in the evening.
In his engravings for hours, exposed to the Galerie Jeanne Bucher in 1965, Fiorini continues in another way its plans to incorporate in his works temporality. These eleven engravings, eight horizontal form of "makémono" and three vertical-shaped "kakemono" for the most part over two meters, and never in the history of engraving has been sized prints as exceptional , which "were, in truth, if not feasible, again, Fiorini was designed and created processes to exceed the standards, in both paper sizes for the passage in press," said Roger. Van Gindertael (Fiorini, 1965). In the distance suitable for engraving, which attracts to itself the look into the details of his subject, it is necessary to collect these works go over time and not a single glance. It's a kind of visual journey from non-figurative landscapes they provide, beyond addressing Fiorini all themes that the temporal dimension allows it to suggest, from a tribute to the wave of Hokusai up processions of King René allusive or Travellers. As in his previous album, Fiorini has several of his plates under different prints that evoke the essential lines of light throughout the day and year, some of them by recreating from one side to the other succession by insensible passages.
The monumental nature of this suite is accentuated in the eleven prints for the wall, engraved by six and five by Louttre.B Fiorini, both painters and writers have realized in 1970 at the Galerie Jeanne Bucher. "It is simple to make prints of two meters by three meters. No problem, except that nothing exists in these dimensions: any hardware or materials. However, the magnitude of his work and the richness of its material, wood carved hollow called the wall. "Then they write, summarizing how they were necessary to make a press for printing wide enough and the development of the paper to the size needed. "These are monumental engravings, for the first time the dimensions of a tapestry. (...) The very language of the print gets an extension, has a decisive liberation. Where the paint goes, etching can go: it is not reduced to what, in sizes small, black and white may enter. The engraving can say all that said the painting, if it says otherwise. "Analysis in his preface Gaétan Picon.
Through its use of new materials and its development within the field wall Fiorini's work thus appears, to those of Jean Fautrier or Raoul Ubac, Johnny Friedlaender, Stanley Hayter, Henri-Georges Adam, Pierre Courtin or Roger Vieillard, including The most significant of the mutation that freed the burning of any subordination to the drawing or painting, and having engaged in the recognition of its specific means, assured full autonomy of its expression.