||An Etching Process in which tone is created
by treating a plate with fine particles of acid resistant
material ( like powder resin) and then placing the plate
in an acid bath. The acid bites into the plate between the
grains of resin and when printed, the mass of tiny spots
produces a textured area with tonal effects similar to watercolor
||Artist's Proofs should be exactly the same
as the edition in quality and image though they are outside
the numbered edition. They are identified with "A.P."
or "Artists Proof" on the impression. They are
often retained by the artist or publisher.
|The same as chop but stamped
with ink on verso of the print. See also Chop.
||A literal translation from French Meaning
"good to pull" and refers to the first print the
artist decides to use for editioning.
||When using a drypoint needle or other engraving
tool to draw directly into a metal plate, small, fine pieces
of metal are raised up on both sides of the scored line.
This burr holds additional ink during the printing process
and gives the lines velvety of fuzzy texture. Burr is very
delicate and consequently is easily worn down during the
pressures of the printing process. Early pulls or impressions
taken from such plates are characterized by rich burr. In
the case of Old Master Prints especially, the quantity and
evidence of burr can sometimes be used as an aid in determining
how early the impression was pulled.
||When the edition is complete, the matrix
- a block, plate, stone, mylar, or other - is effected,
crossed out or otherwise "cancelled". An impression
is then taken from this matrix, showing that the plate has
been "cancelled". This ensures that no further
uncancelled impressions can be pulled.
||The trade name for silicon carbide, carborundum
began its use in printmaking as an abrasive which was used
in affacing lithographic stones. The Particles, when mixed
together with glue can also be used to draw on a plate -
sometimes creating a raised surface - which is then inked
and printed with the ink being held in the spaces between
the particles. The resulting prints are often textured due
to the raised areas of the printing surface.
||A scholarly catalogue which should include
all the known works by an artist at the time of publication.
Essential information by which works are identified is included.
|| A Process in which one sheet of paper
is adhered to another by pressuring, usually a thin paper
laminated to backing during the print process.
||or glass print, is diffrerent, is different
from every other print technique in that the image on the
paper is not produced with ink but with light-sensitive
chemicals. the basic cliche-verre is made by coating a clear
glass plate with collodion or printer's ink and drawing
a design through tha coating with a stylus. A sheet of photo-sensitized
paper is then placed under it and the assemblage exposed
to light (usually sunlight). The image will be recieved
onto the photo paper, exactly in the way that a photographic
print is made from a negative, and the image is then chemically
fixed. A more sophisticated technique involves painting
the design on the glass, the varying densities of the ink
or paint appearing on the final print as varying shades
of white to black. The technique is proto-photographic,
but not reproductive since there is no camera involved.
It was especially popular with corot, Daubigny and other
||A note, usually at the
end of a book or portfolio of prints, giving all or some
of the following information: name of work, author, printer,
place of printing, date, size of edition.
|| An identifying mark embossed on a print
to identify the workshop, printer or publisher.
||Proofs of each separate color of a multicolor
||This term may be used to annotate Trial
Proofs, these proofs may be done using the same plates as
in the edition but the color varies from that used in the
||The uneven edge on handmade paper or mould
||Artists who create their works digitally
or use digital manipulation in order to create a print may
print them on computer using a large scale ink jet printer.
The ink is dispersed by a sophisticated print head in a
fine mist of minute droplets in order to deliver a continuos
tone image. "Iris" prints are made using an ink
jet printer manufactured by IRIS. These prints can be made
using highly saturated, archival water based inks on a wide
range of materials, from traditional art papers to fabrics
and wood veneers. Epson printers use pigment-based archival
inks rather than water based inks. The epson process is
often used in projects that involve a combination of printing
||Drawing on metal plate with a needle of
hard steel, often with a diamond point. The "burr"
that is formed along the edge of the line traps the link
for a soft rich effect.
||Total number of prints pulled from one
image and represents the largest body of work for sale from
that image. These prints are consecutively numbered to show
that the edition is limited by publisher or artist.
||A process used to create a raised surface
or raised element, but printed without ink.
||A method of drawing that employs a burin
or graver to cut or incise on a metal plate
||An intaglio Process in which the lowered
printing areas are bitten and etched by acid. The drawing
and preparation of the plate can be accomplished with a
variety of techniques dealt with elsewhere in this glossary.
See Hardground, Sugar Lift and Softground.
|| When the acid - resistant ground on a
metal plate does not keep the acid entirely out, irregularities
can appear. These "bitten" ares will, when the
plate is printed, catch ink and appear as spots or oddly
||Illustration in a book opposite the title
|| Paper formed by a hand held mould or matrix.
||A method of making a photo - etched or
photogravure plate using an aquatint texture directly on
the plate to create tone.
||These prints are outside the edition but
are the same as the edition and are used as gifts or payments
to those involved in the production of the edition.
||A term applied to any work from a printing
||A general term covering the printing process
such as engraving, aquiant, mezzotint, etching. Any process
in which the image is cut, engraved or etched below the
surface of the plate.
||A Plate treated with a light sensitive
coating which all receive a photographic image either in
lithographic or intaglio processes.
||A Print Made by using a metal plate cut
with an engraving tool.
||A Relief Process in which the image is
cut into the linoleum block. The printing surface being
the raised portions of the block.
CRAYONS AND PENCILS
||Crayons and pencils of a greasy substance
used in drawing for lithography.
||A process based on the natural repulsion
between the grease and water. Image is drawn on stone, aluminum
or zinc plates, or both with greasy drawing materials. The
image is then chemically processed so that the drawn area
accepts grease (ink) and the non - image area water. Unlike
intaglio printing the image and non-image areas are both
on the same plane or level.
||A highly skilled printer who works very
closely with the artist to produce the edition.
||The base from which the print is made.
This can be anything - a standard metal plate or lithographic
stone, a potato or vinyl record, a stencil - anything from
which you print.
||An intaglio process in which the surface
of the plate is scored by a spur like"rocker"
so that it is completely roughened. The plate is then smoothed
in areas to produce modulated tones of light and dark values.
|| A print which the image is made on a non-absorbent
surface, such as glass or Plexiglass, drawn with ink or
paint. The image is transferred to paper by rubbing the
back of the paper on the plate with a rubbing tool or by
hand. Only one print may be made by this method. Or any
other method that makes only one impression.
||A Planographic process in which the inked
impression is taken from the plate and rubber covered cylinder
which then transfers the image it has picked up to the paper.
|(Photo engraving, photogravure, photo silkscreen, photolithography)
These processes all involve the use of
light sensitive emulsion to transfer photographic images
onto a plate or screen which are then processed for printing.
||As suggested by the name, planographic
printing includes all those techniques in which the ink
is neither pressed down on the paper nor raised above the
surface of the paper, but lies in a flat plane on the surface.
In planographic techniques the pressure of the press, if
indeed there is a press at all, is generally much lighter
than with relief or intaglio printing.
||In intaglio prints the pressure of the
press causes the plate to leave a mark of it's surface dimensions
upon the paper.
||A veil of ink intentionally left on the
surface of the plate during printing which creates delicate
areas of tone or shading.
||A process used for hand coloring prints
by using brushes or stencils or any method the artist chooses.
||This is an edition printed from a matrix
after the death of the artist. It has usually been authorized
by the artist's heirs or is the product of a publisher who
previously purchased the matrix from the artist. It should
be limited in some way (though not necessarily hand-numbered)
or it becomes simply a limitless restrike. Posthumous editions
of prints that were pencil signed in their original edition
frequently bear stamped signitures authorized by the artist's
heirs or the publisher.
||Unlike paintings or drawings,prints generally
exist in multiple examples. They are created by drawing
a composition not directly on paper but on another surface,
called a matrix, and then, by various techniques, printing
that image on paper. Those techniques may involve the use
of one or another kind of printing press and ink, or the
image may be transferred by pressing the paper by hand onto
the ink surface of the matrix and rubbing. Multiple impressions
are made by printing new pieces of paper from the matrix
in the same way. The total number of impressions an artist
decides to make for any one image is called an edition.
In modern times each impression in an edition is signed
& numbered by the artist, but this is a relatively recent
||This impression is exactly like the edition
and is the property of the printers responsible for the
pulling of the edition.
||Series of proofs taken to show each individual
color plate and each combination of them culminating in
the final complete version.
||The person or entity who subsidizes and
often initiates the making of a print edition or portfolio
and who also disseminates the prints.
||To print, to transfer the ink to paper.
||The fibers that have been reduced and diluted
with water to be form into paper.
||Method of applying multi-color inks in
bands or gradation on one roller to plate or stone.
||Marks use by the printer to line up the
paper with area to be printed.
||A process of printing in which the non-printed
areas have been cut away from a block or plate.
||Drawings or experimental marks usually
in the margins of the print, to be removed before the work
is editioned. The prints with these marks are called Remarque
|| The print or a whole edition pulled from
formerly printed plates, blocks, stones, pr stencils after
the original edition has been printed or cancelled. These
prints should show a defacing mark to note that original
edition has been cancelled.
||A tool used to roughen the surface of the
plate for mezzotint, and intaglio process.
||The number below the line designates the
total size of the edition, the upper number refers to the
specific print from the total edition, i.e. 2/100, the second
print pulled from the edition of 100.
|A stencil process employing a frame on
which silk or synthetic fabric is stretched. Stencils such
as photo, hand drawn or hand cut are placed on the stretched
fabric and act as a block out when the ink passes through
the screen by means of a squeegee onto the paper, the non-stencil
areas create the image.
||An acid resistant coating applied to an
etching plate. this ground remains soft even when dry and
is very sensitive to pressure.
||An etching technique where a soft ground
is laid on a metal plate. The artist draws onto a piece
of paper which is laid down on top of the ground. The ground
adheres to the paper where the pencil of other tool has
pressed down into it through the paper and pulls away when
the paper is lifted.
||A method in which the acid is applied directly
to the plate and then quickly removed by any variety of
||A tool used in silkscreen to apply ink
or paint to material to be printed. A wooden bar and rubber
blade forces ink through the screen.
||An impression taken from the plate at a
particular moment or stage of development and distinguished
from impressions taken at other times during that process.
The final State is the state from which editions are generally
pulled, although some artists pull several impressions in
||The alteration of an editioned image, plate,
stone or stencil creating a new or related image. The new
image may be printed in an edition with all impressions
designated "state" I, II, III, IV, or more.
||when a metal intaglio plate is covered
with a thin deposit of steel using electrolosis creating
a much harder surface which can accommodate larger numbers
of printings before wear become evident.
||A print made by applying color to an etching
plate by use of a metal or paper stencil before printing
by rolling the color onto an inked plate.
||Bavarian limestone is used in the medium
of lithography. This is the element that the artist draws
on to create the print image.
||The Image is drawn on the plate with brush
or pen and sugar ink (a mixture of sugar and India ink).
The plate is covered with hardground and impressed in hot
water to dissolve the sugar, lifting the hardground with
it. The plate is then etched in the normal manner.
||Is a unique printing process, developed by Har-El Printers & Publishers and the Terragraph Atelier, in Jaffa Port.. It combines advanced binding materials and the most basic pigment - sand. The first step is to seal the paper with a silicone varnish, to keep the sand and the oil binders in relief on the paper's surface. The sand is ground to different coarseness of grain, according to the necessary effect.. Where the sand area is needed, first a binder is applied or mixed with the sand, and printed through a screen.
||Method of drawing in which artist works
on a specially coated paper or surface other than the intended
printing element. The Drawing is then transferred to metal
or stone which is then processed for printing.
||A proof that varies from the edition either
in color, size, drawing, printing order, etc. these proofs
are usually pulled before the artist has arrived at the
final decision for the edition. These prints are usually
unique impressions which may be retained by the artist and
are not numbered in any manner.
||Paper used by the artist to draw on that
is transferred to plate or stone. With this method the image
need not be drawn in reverse.
||Grease in stick or liquid form used principally
for drawing in lithography.
||A print using a vegetable such as a potato
as the inked element.
|| The mark that paper makers form in their
papers by sewing the design into the mold before the papermaking
process. The watermark can be seen when held to the light
as it is more translucent than the light.
||A process like screenprinting where pigmented
beeswax is used rather than traditional printer's ink.
||A relief process in which the image is
cut in a block of wood with tools such as knives, goughers
or chisels. The image is inked with a roller, paper is applied
to the surface and the back is then rubbed by hand or with
a rubbing tool, transferring the image to the paper.
||Involves the use of several
blocks, often one for each color to be used and sometimes
on to outline the composition of the image. The print is
made by printing a sheet of paper with each of the blocks
in turn, using some method of registration to avoid misplacement
or overlapping. Where a non-printing area has been cut out
of all the blocks, the natural white of the paper shows
through in the finished print, giving the reson for the
chiaroscuro(Light-Dark). Usually no more than three or foru
blocks are used and the purpose of the technique is to imitate
the appearance of a wash drawing, not to attempt to capture
||A relief process in which the image is
cut into the end grain of a block of wood using engraving
tools. This process produces a very fine white line.
||Used for both lithography and intaglio